The arrests include 60 people in West Texas and New Mexico, said officials with Immigration and Customs Enforcement in El Paso.
ICE officials said the operation, which it dubbed "Cross Check," "led to the arrest of more than 2,900 convicted criminal aliens."
The operation was carried out over a one-week period in all 50 US states and overseas territories, as part of the US administration's strategy to focus on people with criminal records who are in the country illegally.
"The results of this targeted enforcement operation underscore ICE's ongoing commitment and focus on the arrest and removal of convicted criminal aliens and those who game our nation's immigration system," ICE director John Morton said.
It said 681 of those detained had been expelled from the United States after being convicted of crimes but returned to the country illegally, it said.
The agency has carried out operations like "Cross Check" before, but this was the first time it has done so simultaneously throughout the country. About 1,900 agents took part in the sweep, it said.
It's ridiculous that Mexicanos are being deported and arrested on our own land under the accusation of being criminally here. WE BUILT THIS SO CALLED "Land of the Free".
Yet we get no credit for our hard work. Constantly being exploited and undermined on our own tierra. It's time we say "no more!" and Fight Back! All of us. Organize! Mobilize! Strengthen your body, mind, and spirit.